What is VE Day and is it relevant?

Last updated on August 23rd, 2023 at 11:34 am

VE Day, Victory in Europe Day, is celebrated on 8 May as the day the Second World War came to an end in Europe in 1945.  Writing 75 years on in 2020, most people had no memory of the event, many had limited understanding of it and some hadn’t even heard of it. You wonder whether VE Day still has any relevance, why it is still marked and whether, by 2045, it will be any more than a historical note.

VE Day, ChurchillOf course, the war did not end with VE Day; it carried on in the Far East for another three months, until Japan capitulated on 15 August (VJ Day).  But victory in Europe was a watershed, an ending and, for many, a beginning too.  We may be familiar with scenes of jubilation associated with VE Day, but the people in the fading photographs were not so much celebrating a happy event, as celebrating deliverance – together with some expectation that modest hopes for a better future were not futile.  Many were also remembering those they had lost, individual lives among the millions that had perished.

VE Day, Reichstag, Soviet flagLet’s put this in context.  The Second World War in Europe lasted some five and a half years from September 1939.  It was a devastating time for all participants, hard for us to comprehend now.  Most European nations were aggressively overrun by, or allied to, Hitler’s Germany.  Others were occupied by the USSR.  It was a dark chapter in history, a time of unimaginable terror, deprivation and human tragedy.  Nazi Germany was one of the most odious, brutal, frightening, regimes in modern times.  Only six countries – Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Portugal, Spain and Ireland – remained officially neutral and unoccupied.  German occupation was that of a conqueror subjecting the defeated and innocent; it was not only alien, but also harsh and restrictive.  For strategic reasons, but hopefully rather more benignly, the United Kingdom occupied Iceland.  The UK, though it enjoyed the support of its Empire and Dominions, provided the only national opposition to Hitler’s brutal regime in Europe until Germany invaded its erstwhile ally, the USSR, in June 1941.  This event, followed by the USA’s entry into the war later that year, made Hitler’s defeat inevitable.  But it took until 1944 before the pincers inexorably closed in on Germany, from east and west.  Meanwhile, the occupied nations of Europe endured until being gradually liberated – though some, like Poland, would not be free for another forty years.  However, by April 1945, Soviet forces had surrounded Berlin and on 25 April US and Soviet forces met near Torgau, on the Elbe.  On 30 April, the Americans entered Munich and Turin.  In Berlin that day, the Red Army fought its way through the Reichstag, floor by floor. That afternoon, less than a mile away in his bunker, Hitler committed suicide with his new wife, Eva Braun.  The architect of so much misery was dead and a line could finally be drawn under the already doomed Thousand Year Reich.  But the fighting and cruelty went on, with sometimes fanatical German resistance (including on the part of boy soldiers) and the piecemeal capitulation of German forces on all fronts.  To the very end, the Allies maintained their policy of unconditional surrender, rejecting any form of negotiated peace.  On 4 May, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery accepted the unconditional surrender of German forces in the Netherlands, northwest Germany and Denmark at Lüneburg Heath, east of Hamburg. In the early hours of 7 May, Hitler’s successor, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz authorised the final and complete surrender of all German forces on all fronts.  The surrender was signed in Rheims at 0241 that day and took effect at fifty-nine minutes to midnight on 8 May. The killing continued in the meantime; in Prague, German forces fought on until the morning of 8 May.  For the benefit of the sceptical Russians, a further surrender ceremony took place in Berlin just before midnight on 8 May.

VE Day, German surrenderThus it was done.  But though VE Day is characterised by those images of joyful celebration in London, and elsewhere, how people marked the event at the time obviously depended on their personal circumstances.  Many Germans shared their former enemies’ relief that it was all over.  But many committed suicide – through despair, or fear – of retribution for crimes committed, or of maltreatment at the hands of victorious Allied soldiers, particularly Russians. Millions of people of all nations across Europe – civilians, prisoners of war and concentration camp inmates as well as service personnel – had to find their way home.  Some, understandably, got drunk; others, equally understandably, were bemused, or reflective. Lieutenant Cross of the 2nd Ox & Bucks wrote to his parents, “I suppose I should feel elated.  But I feel tired and disgusted.” The news was heard farther afield too, of course, all over the world, at sea or in the air; and it was listened to in jungles and on islands where men and women would continue to die.

VE Day, Buckingham PalaceIn Britain, the population had been expecting to hear any day that hostilities had ended in Europe. Rumours flew about and some found it hard to settle into work. In London, crowds gathered outside Downing Street, waiting for news.  Later on 7 May it was announced that the next two days would be holidays.  Tuesday 8 May would be VE Day and the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, would address the nation then, at 3pm. Always mindful of the bigger picture, he said “We may allow ourselves a brief period of rejoicing; but let us not forget for a moment the toil and efforts that lie ahead. Japan with all her treachery and greed, remains unsubdued.”

Later, speaking to crowds in Whitehall from the balcony of the Ministry of Health, he said:

“God bless you all.  This is your victory!  It is the victory of the cause of freedom in every land.  In all our long history we have never seen a greater day than this.  Everyone, man or woman, has done their best.  Everyone has tried.  Neither the long years, nor the dangers, nor the fierce attacks of the enemy, have in any way weakened the independent resolve of the British nation.  God bless you all.”

VE Day, PiccadillyEcstatic crowds gathered in public places all over the land – Trafalgar Square and Parliament Square in London, and outside Buckingham Palace, where the King and Queen made repeated appearances on the balcony. Nineteen-year old Princess Elizabeth, the future queen, went out with her sister, Margaret to secretly mingle with the heaving throng.  She later recalled it as “one of the most memorable nights of my life.”  Bunting and flags decorated towns and villages all over Britain; people partied, danced in the streets, climbed on buses, kissed and hugged complete strangers and filled the pubs. Though they had escaped invasion, and the widespread destruction visited upon large parts of continental Europe, 450,900 Britons perished in the war, more than 67,000 of them civilians.  Many cities needed substantial rebuilding, there was an acute housing crisis and money was short.  As well as the dangers from bombs and missiles, the people of the United Kingdom had endured years of restrictions, limitations on travel, blackout and rationing; they were entitled to let their hair down.  Like everywhere else, there were also mixed emotions.  The King, George VI, in his radio broadcast at 9pm picked up on that, saying:

“Let us remember those who will not come back, their constancy and courage in battle, their sacrifice and endurance in the face of a merciless enemy: let us remember the men in all the Services and the women in all the Services who have laid down their lives. We have come to the end of our tribulation, and they are not with us at the moment of our rejoicing.”

VE DayIn Sheffield, accountant George Taylor* and his wife listened to Churchill’s speech on the radio and went for a short walk after tea. They removed part of the blackout, not quite believing the news, and opened a tin of chicken they had been saving since January 1941.  The following day, George removed the rest of the blackout and put it in the loft, ready for the next war.  Also in Sheffield, Edie Rutherford* listened to Churchill on a neighbour’s portable radio “He spoke well and seemed in good form.  Everyone agreed that we have been well blessed in having such a leader.  I felt once again great gratitude for being born British.”  Thousands were in the town centre, some attending a service, some simply wandering about.  Side streets had been decorated.  In the evening she took a walk with her husband: lights showed, music blared and most people were clearly the worse for drink. They returned home and, like the Taylors, sought out reserve food they had put by earlier in the war.  In their case, it was tinned asparagus tips, tinned tomatoes, cheese, water biscuits and margarine.  In south-east London, retired widower and keen gardener Herbert Brush* “nearly swore” when he found almost all of his “runner beans had been eaten before they put their tips above the ground.” He listened to Churchill at 3pm, and the King in the evening, then went down the road with a friend to see a bonfire someone had lit.  It was one of many burning in Britain that night: bombs had made plenty of firewood available; some burned effigies of Hitler.

VE Day, girls in the fountainIn Field Marshall Lord Alan Brooke’s war diaries (Chief of Chief of the Imperial General Staff 1941-46), he starts the entry for 8 May by writing, “A day disorganised by victory!” He took the following day off and went home to his wife in Hartley Wintney, spending “a happy and peaceful afternoon together looking after goats and chickens etc.”

VE Day in 1945 was a hugely important event, a moment of national thanksgiving after coming through almost six years of adversity – the blood, sweat and tears, if you like.  But it was also an expression of relief and hope for the future.  It has been marked since, though not in any great coordinated manner that I am aware of, except for the 50th and 70th anniversaries in 1995 and 2015, big government-supported commemorations, which brought crowds to Buckingham Palace again and included thanksgiving and remembrance services, concerts, fly-pasts and parties and flag-waving all over the country.  Generally speaking, Brits are not great flag-wavers – except on special occasions.  A full programme of events was also anticipated for the official 75th anniversary in 2020, the last significant anniversary in which service veterans, by then in their 90s, would be able to participate.  Services of remembrance and thanksgiving, processions and 1940s themed events were planned.  Communities all round the country were intent on organising street parties and participating in a nationwide lighting of beacons.  Why was this?  Was something that happened so long ago, when the world was so different, still relevant?  It is of course important to ensure that the service and sacrifice of the WW2 generation is never forgotten.  Further, VE Day was still close to those who were there, or aware of their parents’ and grandparents’ experiences, at home or overseas, during those long war years.  We might add that it is always wise to celebrate and remember the defeat of tyranny and the freedoms we consequently enjoy. Of course, some will disagree, or feel disengaged from this aspect of Britain’s history.

The advent of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) changed everything, and everyone’s plans.  Because the country was put in lockdown on 23 March, it was no longer possible to contemplate street parties and parades.  Even so, VE Day was still remembered, beginning at 11am with a 2-minute silence.  Churchill’s 1945 victory speech was re-broadcast on TV at 3pm, and Her Majesty the Queen addressed the nation at 9pm – just like her father did. Following that, everyone had the opportunity to join in a national sing-along of force’s sweetheart Dame Vera Lynn’s anthemic ‘We’ll Meet Again’.  In between times, people were encouraged to mark the day at home, and on their doorsteps.  And thousands, perhaps millions, did. Some put bunting up and even enjoyed socially-distanced tea-parties.

Bunting, union jacks, jubileeCoronavirus (COVID-19) is a terrible thing.  Many wondered whether VE Day 2020 would engage more and different people, because of the disease.  Battling adversity, honouring the ordinary brave who have contributed to overcoming a common evil and remembering those we have lost, actually chimed with the moment, some thought. Our society was under threat.  There were possible parallels with the past, attributes some are still nostalgic for – the community spirit, volunteering, looking out for one another.  Make do and mend.  Is your journey really necessary?  And then there’s the fear.  That was certainly a common factor, though battling an unseen foe might be even more frightening than a tangible opponent who can be physically grappled, or shot at.  I have often wondered how people did what they did during World War Two, and how we, more privileged, pampered, self-indulgent and emotional folk, would cope with something similar.  The quality of life and standard of living for most people during Britain’s 21st century lockdown was infinitely better than it would have been in the 1940s.  Being mostly confined to your home and not being able to go out with your friends for 2 or 3 months is difficult, very difficult for some, but the benefits outweigh the alternative.  The economic consequences of the Corona crisis might turn out to be worse than those of WW2.  However, the most sobering thought was that, on a proportional basis from March to May 2020, the UK death-rate from COVID-19 significantly exceeded the number of civilians killed by Hitler’s bombers between 1939 and 1945.  By December, the actual number of fatalities had overtaken the WW2 total.  Sadly, hopes that VE Day in 2020 would be a catalyst for some kind of national coming together were not realised.  And, whereas VE Day in 1945 was an ending, in May 2020 Coronavirus (COVID-19) had barely got going.


* Fictional name, but a real person.  From ‘Our Hidden Lives’ by Simon Garfield.

Further reading (links to Amazon)

Our Hidden Lives – Simon Garfield
War Diaries 1939-1945 – Field Marshall Lord Alanbrooke
Armageddon – Max Hastings
Second World War – Martin Gilbert

Read the story of the girls in the fountain and other material on the IWM website

VE Day 75 website

43 thoughts on “What is VE Day and is it relevant?”

  1. One of our neighbours (at short notice) arranged a front lawn social distancing afternoon tea party to commemorate the day.

    It was more intimate and special than the larger celebrations that the nation had been looking forward to.

    Perhaps more in line with the original celebration….

  2. Hi Mike – my parents didn’t have very good wars … and certainly I never discussed it with them. But this pandemic is getting us to realise that life has not always been comfortable in our life times, or in the 50 years before that … or how much science has progressed … and that we don’t have vaccines for HIV, various flus … etc – but we live with them. Also to realise that we may have changed, but many of the values hold true now – goodness of heart … I hope these memories will continue to be remembered – and then we really will be part of history – a 100 years on … and life will have changed very dramatically for us all. Take care – HIlary

  3. I think it’s important that people remember VE Day. The European war was hugely important even if VE Day preceded VJ Day. Additionally, it allowed many people the opportunity to begin to think about their future again

  4. An excellent post Mike thank you. My father had already joined the Royal Navy in 1935 and served most of the war at sea except for a short stint in Scotland where my mother and two sisters could join him. Other than that he was away for a year and on one occasion for two years. On VE Day my mother knew he would be home at some point but he was in the Far East and did not get back to a year later in 1946…She was only in her early 20s and although she lost friends from the village in the war, she always said that war was started by old men who could not talk to each other civilly and cost the lives of young men and women on all sides.

    1. Thanks, Sally. Very true; it beggars belief that we still have petulant despots in the world today, sabre-rattling or worse. We should ship them off to an island where they can play together without bothering the rest of us.

  5. Thank you, Mike. An excellent retelling of our part in the Second World War. You are right in saying that many of us have never known what it is like to have to give up the luxury of being able to do what we like when ever we please. We watch re-runs of ‘Dad’s Army’ and laugh but don’t really consider what it must have been like to live through those times of fear, rationing and curfew. The British did what they had to do for the greater good, in the most part with humour but with some grumbling, too I am sure. Of course, as in most societies there were those who rebelled or took advantage of others, like the black-marketeers.
    My nine-year-old mother was bombed-out of her home in the London blitz and was evacuated to N. Devon with her mother and baby sister. There she met another evacuee from London who just happened to be Jewish, To my mother at the time, being Jewish just meant this friend went to a different church from her, like Baptists and Methodists did. My grandparents had Jewish friends and there had never been any racism in my mother’s home. My mother’s new friend told Mum that when ever she blew her nose she always pushed it upwards so that Hitler wouldn’t catch her. Mum decided she would do the same not realising her little friend was showing what it was like to be a Jew at that time, even in Britain. Cruel stereo-typical ideas of Jews with hooked noses and miserly habits were used by the Nazis to promote their nasty ideology. How terrifying it must have been for a Jewish family in Britain with the fear of imminent invasion to live with! These cruelties are what we fought against and we were glad when it was over though sorrowful for the loss of life.

  6. artandarchitecturemainly

    Armistice Day (11/11) is vital because we can go to the Shrine or the War Cemeteries to memorialise our fathers, uncles and grandfathers in dignity. We used to have 2 minutes of silence so that citizens could stand still, in the middle of the city streets or in our shops and offices each year.

    On the other hand, celebrating our military victory over other nations is horrible. “We killed more of your young sons than you killed of ours… let’s let off fire works and get drunk!!”

    1. Only the barking mad celebrate killing more young sons than the other side. It’s certainly not a general view in the UK now and I don’t believe it was in 1945. I’ve seen a lot of ignorance on social media lately – people throwing around accusations of ‘nationalism’ without really understanding what it means, and not understanding history either. The Second World War was the largest event in history and, from an Allied viewpoint, one of the very few justifiable wars ever. By 1939, there was no way Hitler & Co would go away, short of military defeat. Nor was the Japanese regime much better. All events mean different things to different people, but one thing VE and VJ days mean to most is not victory in a nationalist cause, but the defeat of nationalism and tyranny.

  7. lowcarbdiabeticJan

    As others have also said, thank you for this most thoughtful and very informative post.

    Even in times of Covid 19 it was good to see those who hung up bunting and flew their flags.
    Of course street parties were still held but folks stayed within their own front garden boundary, or at least ones I know of did!

    All the best Jan

  8. A fascinating and informative post. My mother was born in London and was evacuated to S. Wales. At the very end of the war, she became a wren. I was always fascinated and amazed by her memories of what she experienced.

  9. This is such a sound, thoughtful, post, Mike. 2045 will be that magical 100 year anniversary and some of us could conceivably still be around (I feature in a street party when I was nearly 3 – and my mother recently likened our current lockdown to wartime separations) but, thereafter, who knows?

  10. Thank you for a very interesting article Mike. I wasn’t born until 1948 but Dad was a farm labourer and worked alongside many ‘displaced persons’ and even prisoners of war. There were no parties or celebrations in the countryside, they were too busy. There was also a great deal of unease amongst those workers, with worries whether they would have a family and home to go back to, whether they would be shunned or looked down on. Indeed, many chose to remain in the UK and integrated perfectly!

  11. Thank you for another educational and thoughtful blog post. For example, I did not realize that “only six countries – Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Portugal, Spain and Ireland – remained officially neutral and unoccupied.” I remain amazed at the folks in my country (the USA) who are ignoring science and bemoaning their short-term sacrifices of haircuts and manicures and personal liberty. I suppose it is partly because they get their information from media outlets who also ignore science. I DO appreciate the economic hardships that many folks are experiencing, however, with no money to pay for their rent/mortgage, food, car payments, etc. I can’t imagine that it is going to get much better for many, many months here in the USA with our ignorant, self-serving national leadership. We shall see how well the different countries of the world are able to ally ourselves against this shared COVID-19 challenge…

  12. This is a wonderful post, Mike. Thought-provoking and of course filled with the history that you tell us so very well. I cannot imagine life in the war. Recently I wrote about our “Anne Frank Moment” and that compared to people like the Franks, who spent years in hiding with great food shortages, a deadly consequence if discovered and crammed rather tightly into small rooms, unable to move for the hours of the working day, we have it pretty good. I know that’s not true for all who have lost their jobs, who are trapped into small spaces with several children and perhaps domestic violence. Still, compared to World War II…

    I wonder if the reason so many seem somewhat cavalier about the dangers of the virus and so unwilling to wear masks or keep distance is because most in our generation have never really had to sacrifice anything — our civil liberties for the greater good. We aren’t used to being told what to do. But those of us who are older remember parents and grandparents tell us of the war, of blackouts and rationing, civil defense wardens and curfews. I admire those of you in countries where fines are made for violating the covid guidelines.

    I’ve been following what I can of this here today. Good luck finding it on American news which is 24/7 Covid/Trump but I have BBC News and the pieces have been inspiring. So, too, has been this excellent recap and your thoughts in conclusion. Well done, my friend.

    1. Thanks, Jeanie. Yes, I can’t work out whether those who are cavalier about the virus are happy to gamble with lives, perhaps due to vested interest, lack imagination, or are simply stupid. Mind you, I did get a spam/troll comment from someone saying if the virus killed all the old people it would serve them right for ruining the economy and their children’s lives.

  13. One thing to remember in connection with VE Day…and VJ Day….with a country and economy in ruins, people decided to build a better life for all, and managed it!
    I hope this period of confinement will lead to people questioning the nature of the society which has returned inequality of life chances back to pre war standards and decide to dosomething about it, yet again.

  14. thank you for the history lesson and the reminder of what the people in Europe went through during WWII. Your analogy to COVID-19 is spot on; let’s hope that things start to return to normal soon.

    Happy VE Day!

  15. I knew I had read those quotes before – Secret Lives – a book you recommended to me. Like you and many reading this I grew up with the stories our parents told us of how they celebrated VE Day. My mother was working in London and living with her parents. My aunt was with the forces stationed in Antwerp as a member of an anti aircraft gun crew and my two uncles were serving in India and what was then Burma. I think my family was a stoic lot as none of them owned up to having danced in fountains or climbed up on the lions at Trafalgar Square. Parallels with today – yes many. But there are some differences too. We don’t yet have to worry about taking a bath in a maximum of 2 inches of water. And as US TV host Jay Leno commented – we may all be prisoners at home of the war against COVID, but this is one war where the prisoners seem to be getting fatter! And now for another postWWII radio catch phrase – It’s being so cheerful that keeps me going. Tally ho, Andy

  16. As a second generation Canadian, (my maternal grandmother was a WW1 war bride) I have always been interested in Britain. It was my understanding that France also declared war on Germany before it was overrun and defeated by the Nazi’s. I am surprised too, that you did not include the information that Canada and Australia declared war on Germany in 1939 as well, and both countries contributed greatly to the war effort. England did not fight alone. Lest We Forget

    1. Hi – thanks for visiting and commenting – I hope you enjoy the site. Of course you are right in what you say about France, Canada and Australia. In fact, the article very specifically says that the UK was supported by its Empire and Dominions (which included Canada and Australia and many more at the time – India, for example) and provided the only national opposition in EUROPE. That was obviously after the rest of it, including France, had been occupied. Btw, you may also know that 20% of the pilots that fought in the Battle of Britain came from overseas – including Canada, Australia, France – and others. But this article is not, and could not be, a general history of WW2. By ‘England’ I assume you mean the UK, which includes Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland; this certainly was not just England’s war and the article does not say that. Puzzled by you saying “… overrun and defeated by the Nazi’s”. Are you missing a noun here?

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