A tour of Portsmouth Harbour

Last updated on August 23rd, 2023 at 12:05 pm

HMS Queen Elizabeth, aircraft carrier, Royal Navy, Portsmouth
Heritage isn’t the first thing on your mind when you’re gazing up at a 920 feet-long leviathan, an ultra-modern aircraft carrier costing UK taxpayers £3.1 billion.  Then again, I suppose it all began with a hollowed tree trunk.

HMS Queen Elizabeth, Portsmouth Harbour TourThis is HMS Queen Elizabeth.  She and her sister ship HMS Prince of Wales are the largest warships the Royal Navy has ever had, and their home port is HM Naval Base Portsmouth, on England’s south coast. Portsmouth is well-known for its naval heritage: this is, after all, the home of Horatio Nelson’s flagship, HMS Victory, which he commanded and died on at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.  But people have been using Portsmouth Harbour far longer than that – probably since the days of hollowed tree trunks – for trade and travel as well as, more recently, for a naval base.  Flanked by the city of Portsmouth and Portsea Island to the east, with the mainland town of Gosport to the west, Portsmouth Harbour is an enormous natural anchorage with a narrow, easily defended, harbour entrance.  At the mouth of the harbour is the Solent, the busy stretch of water between mainland England and the Isle of Wight.  As well as being a naval base, Portsmouth is a commercial ferry, freight, fishing and pleasure port.  Sitting by the waterside watching the sea traffic come and go is a favourite pastime; there’s always something going on.  It is perhaps best enjoyed whilst nursing a pint of HSB outside the Still and West on the Point – a narrow spur jutting into the harbour at Old Portsmouth.  If you’re really brave, a boat tour of the harbour provides a seafarer’s perspective and takes in views of whichever ships happen to be visiting at the time.  One of the most popular tours runs from a pier near HMS Warrior, the world’s first armour-plated iron-hulled warship, within the historic Royal Navy dockyard.  In parallel with an idea of what can be seen in the 21st century, let’s provide a little historical context and try to get inside Portsmouth Harbour. Trust me, we can only skim the surface.


Portsmouth Harbour entrance, visit Portsmouth
A scene from the mouth of Portsmouth Harbour shows the WightLink Isle of Wight car ferry, the green and white Gosport ferry, the masts of HMS Warrior and, behind them, Semaphore Tower and the Queen Elizabeth.
Portchester Castle, Portsmouth Harbour
Portchester Castle in the distance – the Roman-medieval fortress at the northern end of Portsmouth Harbour.

At the northern head of Portsmouth Harbour, the Romans constructed Portchester Castle, probably known as Portus Adurni, one of a string of forts they built to defend Britain in the 3rd century AD. After the Romans came the Saxons, then the Danes.  In 897AD, Alfred the Great of Wessex assembled part of his fleet in Portsmouth Harbour, before defeating the Danes in a pitch battle in the Solent. King Harold Godwinson mustered his fleet there too, in anticipation of Norman invasion in 1066 – had it been deployed, history might have taken a different course.  The port and the town inevitably developed together and Portsmouth has been one of England’s premier ports since medieval times.  It was used as an embarkation point by successive kings seeking to retain or claim lands in France: Henry II, John, Henry III, Edward I, Edward III, Henry V – all set sail with armies from Portsmouth Harbour. And the French paid several return visits too, attacking and burning Portsmouth four times in the 14th century.

HMS Warrior, iron clad, Dockyard, Portsmouth
HMS Warrior – HMS Warrior was world’s first armour-plated, iron-hulled warship, a 40-gun steam-powered frigate, albeit with sails too, launched in London in 1860. She rendered every other naval ship obsolete at the time, but was herself out of date by 1871. Warrior was rescued from use as an oil jetty and restored to her 1860 condition over an 8 year period. She has been berthed in Portsmouth and open to the public since 1987.

Richard I (the Lionheart) made Portsmouth a Royal Borough in 1194 and his brother, wicked King John, established the first known Royal Dockyard – though it was short-lived – in 1212.  It was under the Tudors, though, that Portsmouth’s Harbour and Naval Dockyard began to be developed more seriously. Stone fortifications were added during the reign of Henry VII and in 1495 the world’s first dry dock was constructed.  Under Henry VIII, the whole town began to be surrounded by defensive ramparts, a chain – Ye Mightie Chaine of Yron – was established at the mouth of the harbour between Portsmouth and Gosport to prevent unwelcome visitors entering, and fortifications were constructed elsewhere on Portsea Island and Gosport to defend the town and its haven against attack. In July 1545, a French invasion fleet of some 175 ships faced 80 defending English vessels in the Solent and Henry, witnessing the unfolding battle personally from one of these new fortifications, Southsea Castle, watched in horror as the Mary Rose, built in Portsmouth and pride of his fleet, sank beneath the waves in front of him. By establishing the Navy Board and Office of Admiralty, Henry actually laid the foundations for the Royal Navy, which was formally established in 1661.

Portsmouth, Tudor, Round Tower, Square Tower
The Round Tower and, behind it, the Square Tower, are part of the old medieval fortifications, rebuilt in stone in Tudor times.
HMS Victory, Portsmouth Harbour Tour
HMS Victory viewed from the harbour. Victory was launched at Chatham in 1765, served in the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic War. She is most famous as the flagship of Admiral Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, when the Royal Navy defeated a larger combined French and Spanish force. Nelson died on board. Victory has been in dry dock since 1922 and is the world’s oldest naval ship still in commission.

It would have been intriguing to have been anchored in Portsmouth Harbour down through the centuries, witnessing great comings and goings, and experiencing the world getting smaller.  Imagine seeing tobacco, potatoes and turkeys, when these and other hitherto unknown products arrived in British ports for the first time.  Queen Elizabeth I was just one of several monarchs who visited Portsmouth to review the fleet as the docks, and the town, grew.  There were great events too.  Charles II’s bride, Catherine of Braganza, landed at Portsmouth and the couple were married in the town in 1662, possibly in what is now the Royal Garrison Church.  Tradition has it that, on landing, Catherine drank some English beer and immediately sent word to her ship for tea; the first cup of tea to be drunk in England, some say (not actually true, it was introduced in the late 1650s).  In 1692, an Anglo-Dutch armada of more than 100 ships gathered in the harbour prior to defeating the French at the Battle of Barfleur.  In 1787, the First Fleet sailed from Portsmouth – 11 ships holding 1,480 men, women and children who would establish the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia.  Also that year, HMS Bounty under the command of Captain Bligh set sail from Portsmouth for Tahiti, to gather breadfruit. Incidentally, the modern practice of body tattoos in Europe probably dates from sailors bringing the custom home from Polynesia; the word comes from the Tahitian tatau.

HMS Diamond, D34, Royal Navy destroyers, Portsmouth
HMS Diamond (D34) preparing to set sail. Diamond is a Type 45 destroyer, built on the Clyde and launched in 2007. Her home port is Portsmouth.
HMS Diamond, Royal Navy ships, Portsmouth
Here is Diamond moving out from her berth, helped by a friendly tug or two

By 1801, the Royal Navy consisted of 180 ships of the line – the massive wooden walls that could fire broadsides at enemy ships – and 684 other vessels; I wonder how many were based at Portsmouth?  Nelson, one of Portsmouth’s adopted heroes, embarked from the beach, outside Portsmouth Harbour, in September 1805. In 1807, the growing dockyard took on a new pay clerk, John Dickens; his son Charles was born in Portsmouth in 1812.  From 1808 the Royal Navy’s West Africa Squadron, which had the job of ending the slave trade, was based at Portsmouth.  Prison hulks, old ships, no longer suitable or safe for the world’s oceans, were adopted to incarcerate criminals – and others – and moored in Portsmouth Harbour.  In 1813, 18,000 French prisoners of war were held captive inside these prison hulks at Portsmouth, or behind the walls of Portchester Castle.

Human remains have been uncovered on Burrow Island, a tidal island on the Gosport side of the harbour owned by the Ministry of Defence and where there was once a fort. The island is known locally as Rat Island and is known to have been a burial ground for convicts and prisoners of war.

Portsmouth Harbour, tower
I haven’t a clue what this tower is. If anyone knows, perhaps they could tell me…
Spinnaker Tower, Portsmouth, Harbour Tour
This is Spinnaker Tower. Spinnaker Tower is a 560 foot (170 metres) high viewing tower, constructed as part of the redevelopment of Portsmouth Dockyard. It opened in 2005 and is included within a waterside retail and restaurant complex, Gunwharf Quays. Modelled on a billowing sail, the Spinnaker Tower has changed Portsmouth’s skyline and is visible for miles. It offers 360-degree views from the high viewing platforms across Portsmouth Harbour and the surrounding sea and landscapes, apparently to a distance exceeding 20 miles. You can also take tea in a high-level cafe, get married there, or abseil down the tower.
HMS Dragon, D35, destroyers, Royal Navy, Portsmouth
HMS Dragon (D35) Dragon is a Type 45 destroyer, built on the Clyde and launched in 2008. She features the Welsh dragon on her bow and is the only ship in the Royal Navy to have any kind of decoration or non-operational symbol.
HMS Medusa, ML1387, Portsmouth Harbour
ML1387 is HMS Medusa. We were lucky to spot her. She is a diesel-powered harbour defence launch built entirely of wood in Poole in 1943. She is normally berthed at Gosport and has a proud heritage, having served off Omaha Beach on D-Day, 1944.

As Britain’s Empire expanded, so did its navies – and Portsmouth; by the mid 19th century it was the most heavily fortified town in Europe, if not the world.  On the eve of the Great War, King George V reviewed the fleet at Spithead, just outside Portsmouth Harbour; it included 24 of the latest Dreadnought class battleships (the first, HMS Dreadnought, was launched in Portsmouth Harbour in 1906), 35 other battleships, 49 cruisers, 78 destroyers and hundreds of smaller craft – a total of 640 vessels drawn up in twelve lines.

Round Tower, Spitbank, Portsmouth, Forts
People crowd the top of Round Tower to wave farewell to HMS Diamond. On the horizon is Spitbank Fort, one of three built in the Solent by the Victorians. It is currently a hotel.

The prominence of Portsmouth Harbour as a naval base ensured that it, the town and surrounding area, were all heavily bombed during World War Two. And it was yet again used to assemble and embark an invasion force, because this was one of the English ports from which Operation Overlord, the invasion of Europe, was launched on D-Day 6th June 1944. Portsmouth was the headquarters and main departure point for the military and naval units destined for Sword Beach on the Normandy coast. One observer, looking down on the harbour from Portsdown Hill to the north, commented that there were so many ships and landing craft to be seen that it seemed as though it would be possible to walk from Portsmouth to the Isle of Wight across their decks. (Southwick House, behind Portsdown Hill, was the operational HQ for the Supreme Allied Commander, General Eisenhower, and underneath Fort Southwick, one of a chain of Victorian Forts on the hill, was the naval communication nerve centre.)

Camber, Portsmouth
Entrance to the Camber, one of the oldest parts of the original port, once also used for boatbuilding. It is now used by Portsmouth’s small fishing fleet and by pleasure craft.

One of the more bizarre stories to emerge from Portsmouth Harbour is the mystery of Lieutenant-Commander ‘Buster’ Lionel Crabb OBE GM.  Crabb was an accomplished underwater diver, who had left the Royal Navy; something of a hero, as well as a chain-smoking heavy-drinking eccentric.  In April 1956, Soviet Premier Nikolai Bulganin and the First Secretary of the USSR’s Communist Party, Nikita Khrushchev, were on a goodwill visit to Britain.  They travelled on the cruiser Ordzhonikidze, escorted by two destroyers, and docked at Portsmouth’s South Railway Jetty.  The day before they arrived, Crabb had booked into the Sally Port Hotel in Old Portsmouth with one Bernard Sydney Smith, an agent of the Special Intelligence Service, or MI6.  Early in the morning of 19th April, Crabb eased himself into the gloomy waters of Portsmouth Harbour and swam under the Ordzhonikidze, apparently to photograph its hull, propellers and rudder.  Unfortunately, he did not resurface.  Attempts to hush up Crabb’s disappearance became futile when the Russians asked their hosts that evening why a frogman had been spotted in the water near their cruiser.  Fourteen months later, a headless, handless, corpse was found floating in Chichester Harbour, just down the coast.  The authorities decided the body was Crabb and buried it in Portsmouth’s Milton Cemetery.  But was it? And what happened?  Was Crabb killed by the Russians, MI6, or did he meet an accident? Or did he defect? The mystery of this, let’s face it, ill-considered cock-up, remains to this day.

Point, Spice Island, Still & West, Old Portsmouth
Point – once known as Spice Island, probably due to the malodorous smell. This is Old Portsmouth – the Spice Island Inn, formerly the Coal Exchange, and the adjacent Still and West pubs are good spots to watch the shipping. See how relatively narrow the harbour entrance is? The land on the horizon is the Isle of Wight.

Portsmouth Harbour witnessed the departure of another invasion force on 5th April 1982 as a naval task force headed by HMS Hermes and Invincible left Portsmouth Harbour for the Falkland Islands, which had been invaded by Argentina. The task force returned in July, having retaken the islands.

HMS Diamond, Portsmouth HarbourRoyal Navy, ships, Portsmouth HarbourSo, toward the end of our harbour tour, HMS Diamond slipped inexorably out of harbour, past the Isle of Wight ferry, gliding elegantly past the Round Tower, ship’s company lining the deck, escorting helicopter flying overhead.  Sleek, powerful, yet slow to anger, she is a greyhound of the sea; heading for the Middle East, she would be away for 9 months, at least. The walls, and the top of the Round Tower, were lined with people, many of them undoubtedly relatives of those serving aboard. It was an emotional moment yet, somehow, reassuring. For reasons I still can’t quite fathom, I felt absurdly grateful, and, yes, proud.  At the risk sounding banal and clichéd, it did strike me that all of this – Diamond, the other ships, everything around me – could be part of Britain’s national DNA; an island, populated by the descendants of a succession of invaders and immigrants since time out of mind, not one of them living farther than 70 miles from the sea…

Clearly, it was time for a beer.

The harbour tour that runs from the pier near HMS Warrior is included in the ticket price for all attractions – eg, Victory, Warrior, Mary Rose – at the Historic Dockyard.

Fort Blockhouse, HMS Dolphin, Gosport
A lone yacht leaves Portsmouth Harbour, past Fort Blockhouse, formerly HMS Dolphin, which was the base for Royal Navy’s submarine service in Gosport.


28 thoughts on “A tour of Portsmouth Harbour”

  1. Fascinating article re Old Portsmouth (and the Harbour). I found it very helpful in researching for my current historical novel re a distant forebear who left Deal via Portsmouth to sail to Calcutta and make his fortune in the 18th century.

  2. Dear Sir, thanks for making this web site. My wife and I plan on visiting the British Isles for our Fortieth Anniversary next year. I hope to find a local tour guide to show us the Points of interest related to The Bounty Court Martial. Thanks again.

    1. Thank you ‘Weehawker’! It’s wonderful that you’re coming to the British Isles and, especially, have chosen to mark your special anniversary by doing so. If you think I may be of any help with your plans, do drop me a line through the contact form on this website. Captain Bligh, as you probably know, is buried in Lambeth, London.

      1. Dear Sir, I can’ believe how fast life is flying by ! Here it is March, and you were so kind to respond back in November ! Please forgive the long absence. I was wondering, Do you have a tour of Liverpool posted perhaps? Maybe I am not finding it because I am not that good with computers. My wife and I plan on being in Liverpool 3 July, a Friday, and I want to do an American Civil War walking tour, and go find James Dunwoody’s grave. Thanks again for all of your hard work and kindness.

        1. Greetings ‘Weehawker’. I’m sorry, there isn’t a tour of Liverpool on A Bit About Britain yet, but if you type what you want into search engine you’ll probably find what you’re looking for. Please contact me through the contact form if you need help. Sadly, your trip may be in doubt now – let’s hope it isn’t cancelled.

  3. As a near local in West Sussex I enjoyed your visit to this centre of naval history. I’ve always been fascinated by the place. The town certainly knows how to present itself as a tourist centre, with so much to see.

    1. Thank you. I don’t think there’s much for the tourist in Portsmouth beyond the old town and Southsea, but there’s enough there to keep you busy for quite a while and the history is fascinating. Frankly, though, I enjoy simply strolling along the sea front whenever I’m there. I will be back!

  4. Such an interesting harbour. So much going on. We stayed there a few years back, right down on Spice Island, a few doors from the point. Rode the ferry to the Isle of Wight too. One thing Britain can be proud of is its navy!

  5. Blue Sky Scotland

    Nice to see the modern warships down there after watching their construction near my house for several years. One of my biggest regrets is driving past Portsmouth, Southampton, and Plymouth (I was a protesting passenger at the time) without exploring any of them during a rock climbing tour of the south west and ending up in nondescript inland villages instead to be near less impressive lumps of rock in forests or by an otherwise empty coastline.One drawback of touring with a group of obsessives only focused on a single narrow purpose- to tick off classic rock climbs.
    Yours, Gutted and frustrated even today at the thought of it…
    Lovely exploration of the waterfront via your photographs…

  6. We hope to be holidaying on the Isle of Wight sometime next year and a tour of Portsmouth Harbour is definitely on the cards, especially after reading this amazingly informative post. Wonderful photographs as ever!

    1. Hi Clare. Love the IoW! You could easily spend a couple of days at Portsmouth’s Historic Dockyard, if you want to see Mary Rose, Victory, Warrior, the submarine museum and all the other amazing things there. Tip – look for ticket deals online from sites like Groupon.

  7. What a busy port, right on through history. Interesting story about the mysterious Mr Crabb and I’m still reeling at the cost of the aircraft carrier, £3.1 BILLION!

  8. artandarchitecturemainly

    If the French got inside the harbour and attacked and burned Portsmouth four times in the 14th century, and then again in later centuries, I too would be building every possible defensive tower, fort and barracks in Portsmouth.

    With the forts already in place, there may not have been any need for a martello tower. So your unknown tower looks like part of 19th century defences, perhaps part of a wall

  9. Hi Mike, I love this post!! It’s chock full of interesting info. We have a town of Portsmouth, in the state of Virginia, which is the state that borders us on the north. It also has a naval base, but I feel sure it’s not nearly as large as your Portsmouth naval base. I read that the shipyard there “upgrades, remodels, and repairs ships of the U.S. Navy, and is one of the few facilities in the world with the capability to dry dock an aircraft carrier.” (Wikipedia) I LOVED the picture of the HMS Victory — a truly handsome ship, in my humble opinion. I had heard of prison ships, and I think they would be a very unpleasant place to be in captivity for any length of time.

    I’ve never been to Portsmouth, VA, but my mom has cousins who’ve lived there for years. Your post has made me want to visit now. 🙂 Thanks for sharing, Mike, and have a great weekend!! I hope you and the Missus are doing well.



  10. Hi Mike – what a tour de force of a Tour around Portsmouth … amazing – I will be back to read properly … so much here – wonderful read – thanks – cheers Hilary

  11. Another great tour. Having been round the Victory and taken the Isle of Wight ferry I have still only seen a small selection of what Portsmouth harbour has to offer. Thanks for the extensive tour.

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