Victorian timeline

Victorian housing, SaltaireBelow is a simple timeline of events during Victorian Britain.

1837 Queen Victoria becomes queen at the age of 18.
1838 Worcestershire sauce is invented. Oliver Twist is published. Railway line opens between Birmingham and London.
1839-42 First Opium War – caused by China very unreasonably trying to abolish Britain’s lucrative trade in the drug.
1839 1st Treaty of London – created an independent, and neutral, Kingdom of Belgium. Chartist riots in South Wales.
1840 Queen Victoria marries her cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Introduction of the penny post.
1841 First modern census records details of every member of a household.
1843 Launch of SS Great Britain, the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship. The world’s first underwater tunnel opens, between Rotherhithe and Wapping in London.
1844 Birth of the Cooperative Movement (now the largest funeral business in the UK).
1845-52 The Irish potato famine: as many as 1 million may have died and up to 2 million more emigrated, mainly to the USA, England and Scotland.
1845 Friedrich Engels publishes The Condition of the Working Class in England.
1846 Repeal of the Corn Laws – the price of bread gradually reduces.
1847 The world’s first public zoo opens at Regent’s Park. The worlds first municipal park opens in Birkenhead. Jane Eyre is published.
1848 Public Health Act – first step toward improvements in sewerage, food standards etc.
1849 The British conquer the Punjab. Dickens publishes David Copperfield.
1851 Britain shows off at The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. Sir Titus Salt builds Saltaire, a model village for his workers near Bradford.
1852 George Cayley designs a glider to take a pilot. David Livingstone begins his first exploration of the interior of Africa.
1853 Infant vaccination is made compulsory. The first post boxes appear in Britain, following trials in Jersey. Elizabeth Gaskell publishes Cranford.
1854-56 1854-56 Crimean War – Britain, France and Turkey combine against Russia.
1855 Henry Bessemer invents his converter, improving the mass production of steel.
1856 Institution of the Victoria Cross – Britain’s highest award for miltary gallentry.
1857-58 The Indian Mutiny.
1858 The Great Stink of the Thames. Joseph Bazalgette sets out to create a sewer network for central London.  The first transatlantic telegraph communication (using undersea cable).
1859 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of the Species. Alfred, Lord Tennyson starts to publish The Idylls of the King, retelling the legend of King Arthur and his knights.
1860 HMS Warrior – Britain’s first ironclad warship is launched.
1861-65 Meanwhile – American Civil War.
1860 Florence Nightingale sets up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital, London.
1861 Prince Albert dies. Post Office savings scheme launched.
1863 First underground railway opens between Paddington and Farringdon Street, London. Foundation of the Football Association and agreement on the rules of soccer.
1864 Clifton Suspension Bridge opens.
1865 Foundation of the Salvation Army.  Lewis Carroll publishes Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
1867 Joseph Lister writes about his theories on antiseptics. 2nd Reform Act means that 33% of all adult males in Britain are eligible to vote.
1868 Trades Union Congress established.
1869 The Suez Canal opens. Tea clipper The Cutty Sark is launched.
1870 Education Act (Forster’s Act) established a network of secular primary schools alongside existing sectarian schools to provide elementary education for all up to the age of 11.
1871 Meanwhile – the unification of Italy and the unification of Germany.
1872 The secret ballot is introduced for elections. The first FA Cup Final – between Wanderers and the Royal Engineers (Wanderers won, 1-0).
1876 Scots-born Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone (in the US).  The Plimsoll Line (suggested by Samuel Plimsoll) is introduced to prevent the overloading of ships.
1877 Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India. Britain annexes the Transvaal.
1878 The Congress of Berlin – Britain leases Cyprus from Turkey.
1879 The Zulu Wars – Battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift. Tay Bridge rail disaster – 75 die when bridge collapses in a storm due to faulty construction.
1880-81 1st Boer War.
1880 First house to be lit by electricity (Cragside in Northumbria). Education Act made attendance at school compulsory for all.
1882 Britain occupies Egypt. Phoenix Park murders – two Government officials stabbed to death by Irish revolutionaries in Dublin.  In cricket, Australia beat England at the Oval – the birth of ‘The Ashes’ (of cricket).
1883 Married women are allowed to possess their own property, separate from that of their husbands’. Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson is published. Death of Karl Marx in London – Marx had lived there since 1849.
1884 3rd Reform Act increases the franchise to roughly 60% of adult males.
1885 Death of Gordon at Khartoum. Clamours for ‘Home Rule’ for Ireland.
1887 A Study in Scarlet, the first novel featuring detective Sherlock Holmes, is published.
1888 The Whitechapel Murders and the start of the unsolved mystery of ‘Jack the Ripper’. Cecil Rhodes founds the De Beers Mining Company. The strike of the London Match Girls.
1889 London Dock Strike – succeeded in winning ‘the docker’s tanner’ (sixpence per hour) and seen as a milestone in establishing unions of unskilled workers.  The first mosque to be built in Britain opens in Woking.
1890 The Forth Bridge opens.  Sometime this decade, motor cars begin to appear on British roads.
1891 Education Act established free state school education. The first international telephone service, between London and Paris.
1892 Kier Hardie becomes the first Labour MP (for West Ham).
1893 Foundation of the Independent Labour Party
1894 Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Book.  Tower Bridge opens.
1895 Foundation of the National Trust.  Oscar Wilde is sentenced to two years’ hard labour for gross indecency.
1896 Italian Guglielmo Marconi sends his first wireless communication in England.
1897 Formation of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies.
1898 The Battle of Omdurman.   HG Wells publishes War of the Worlds, his 6th novel.
1899-1902 2nd Boer War.
1899 Edward Elgar’s Enigma Variations.
1901 Victoria dies; Edward VII becomes King and Emperor.