The castle at Penrith

Penrith Castle, CumbriaPenrith Castle doesn’t encourage the casual visitor, unless arriving by train.  The railway station is conveniently opposite the castle (probably built on the top of its medieval outbuildings), but anyone driving into town who isn’t a committed castle collector could be excused for not bothering over much.  A busy road runs into downtown Penrith alongside the castle ruins.  Unless I missed it, there’s nothing to suggest parking in the station, nowhere to stop safely on the road and the next nearest public car park isn’t exactly handy.  The absence of some simple signage may help explain why this interesting Cumbrian market town and its castle don’t have higher profiles on the tourist trail.

Richard III's castlesPenrith Railway StationNo one seems to have much to say about Penrith Castle, either.  Even its current owners, English Heritage, are light on detail.  For sure, there is much more to it than I thought there would be; but not a lot.  In fairness, it is relatively small (as castles go) and you might also notice that that it is not a common, or garden, mighty Norman fortress with motte and bailey.  This place is of later construction and has the look of a heavily fortified house with a central courtyard.  There are certainly the remains of several fireplaces in its walls, hints of past luxury.  The remains also include a couple of impressive walls and towers, all done in the local red sandstone, and a moat that, back in the day, when deeper and full of water, would have been a formidable obstacle.  The castle is now the main feature of Penrith’s Castle Park, which was laid out in the 1920s and includes a bowling green, tennis courts, bandstand and an impressive memorial to the fallen of the Boer War.

Castle Park PenrithPossibly the most interesting aspect to Penrith Castle is the people associated with it.  Firstly, there’s a bit of uncertainty about its origins. English Heritage suggest it was raised on the site of a Roman fort – although there isn’t one marked on my trusty Historic England OS map of Roman Britain.  It is generally accepted that the castle itself dates mainly from the early 15th century, but it was once thought that it was built around an earlier pele tower owned by the Bishop of Carlisle, who was granted a licence from King Richard II to crenellate and strengthen his fortification in 1397.  Actually, the most likely builder was Ralph Neville (1364-1425), 1st Earl of Westmorland.  Neville was granted the manor of Penrith by King Richard in 1396, but supported Richard’s overthrow by Henry Bolingbroke, who became Henry IV in 1399.  The Nevilles were one of the wealthiest and most powerful landowning families in medieval England – great rivals of the Percys, the Earls of Northumberland.  Other Neville estates at this time included Raby Castle, Middleham and Sherriff Hutton.

Penrith CastleRalph Neville helped defeat a rebellion by the Percys and, as warden of the West March from 1403, was responsible for the defence of this part of north-west England against the Scots.  One of his sons, Richard, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–60), made Penrith his local headquarters, probably adding the prominent ‘Red Tower’.  Surely, you may ask, all of Penrith’s towers were the same colour?

The people side of things can get complicated; bear with me.  Richard (or ‘Salisbury’ as we should call him) was the first son from Ralph’s second marriage, to Joan Beaufort.  Joan was a catch – the only daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and son of Edward III – and Katherine Swynford. Salisbury had married Alice Montagu and their eldest son, also called Richard, was the 16th Earl of Warwick, (1428-71), known as ‘Kingmaker’ and at one time the most influential noble in the land.  One of Salisbury’s sisters, Cecily (known as ‘the Rose of Raby’, because that was where she was born) married Richard Plantagenet, the Duke of York (1411-60).  York had a claim to the throne and he and Salisbury were allies in the dreadful dynastic struggle that history knows as the Wars of the Roses.  Indeed, they were the prime movers in the Yorkist party opposing the Lancastrians.  Both Salisbury and York perished at, or just after, the Battle of Wakefield, their heads displayed over the City of York’s Micklegate alongside that of York’s 17-year old son, Edmund, the Earl of Rutland.  Among the other sons of York (and Cecily) were two future kings of England, Edward IV and Richard III.  One of Salisbury’s other sons, Sir Thomas Neville, was also killed at Wakefield.  His older brother Richard, Warwick the Kingmaker, became lord of Penrith Castle after their father’s death.

Looking at the ruins of Penrith Castle, you can’t help wondering which of these people rode into its courtyard, walked its corridors and warmed themselves on its fires.

Penrith Castle, castles in CumbriaAfter the death of Warwick the Kingmaker at the Battle of Barnet in 1471, Penrith Castle was granted to Richard, Duke of Gloucester (1452–85), youngest son of Richard Plantagenet (York) and Cecily Neville – and, later, King Richard III.  Richard had married Anne Neville, daughter of the Kingmaker, was Sheriff of Cumberland and resided at the castle occasionally.  He improved the residential wing, adding large windows and other luxuries.  It is thought the moat was added during his ownership too, as well as a new gatehouse.

Richard, of course, perished at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, which ushered in a new dynasty, the Tudors.  As we know, poor old Richard’s remains were found under a car park.  After his death, Penrith Castle remained a royal property but, by the mid-16th century it was in a poor state and being used as a source of building material for other nearby properties.  It had a brief spell as the headquarters of the Parliamentary General John Lambert, who had 3,000 troops quartered in the town during the Civil War in 1648, but fell into further disrepair after that.  As castles go, Penrith’s had a very short life.

Penrith Castle, bit about BritainAn information board at the castle says that, before the park was laid out in 1920, various farm buildings and a house were cleared from the site.

As a footnote, there is said to be a tunnel running between Penrith Castle and Dockray Hall, a pub about 300 yards away at one time known as the Gloucester Arms.  This was apparently not a means for the garrison to sneak out for a quick jar, but to supply the castle at times of need and provide an escape route.  According to Historic England, Dockray Hall dates from c1470 and is said to have been a home to the Duke of Gloucester (Richard III).  Perhaps the castle was too draughty for him.  Dockray Hall’s own website (the pub is closed at time of writing) says that it began as a “defensive pele tower and an outpost of the castle” built by Ralph Neville.

Black Angel memorial, Penrith

 

45 thoughts on “The castle at Penrith

  1. hilarymb

    Hi Mike – I really need to get to grips with the War of the Roses era (and before and after times) – it muddles me … bu occasionally I think I’ve got it and then it disappears again. I came upon the Battle of Barnet in the last few days and now can’t remember how … such is English and British history … but I do have your book … and love your blog – cheers Hilary

    1. Mike@bitaboutbritain Post author

      Thanks, Hilary. I agree – too many similar names! I’ve tried to summarise it in the book, but perhaps should have included a family tree. Thank you for buying it! Oddly enough, I was thinking about Barnet earlier.

  2. marmeladegypsy

    All those Plantagenets/Yorks/Lancasters/Nevilles and all get me so confused! I wish they had different names like Butch, Chuckie and Biff… it would be easier to keep them all separate. But seems they had Edwards and Richards out the wazoo! Well, I think I got it all! But I’d be ready for the pub after thinking it!

  3. April Munday

    There’s rather more about car parks than I was expecting in a post about a castle.

    I think I’ve stopped trying to get the Wars of the Roses straight in my head. It doesn’t help that the major players changed their titles at least once and all of them seem to have been related to one another.

  4. Author R. Mac Wheeler

    Richard III was so hated in the day of the Tudors…would be neat to step into a time machine to go back and learn the truths…being that the victors make up their own history.

  5. Clare Pooley

    The last time we stayed in the Lakes we had to collect my elder daughter from Penrith station. We noticed the ruins from the road and then had awful trouble parking at the station. We promptly forgot about the castle and I have only just remembered it while reading this post! If ever we are in Penrith again we will try to have a look at the castle and I will think about all those people associated with it.

  6. Ruth Gill

    To my shame I’ve never ever noticed Penrith Castle even after living in Cumbria for 28 years. We will visit.

  7. mekslibrarian

    It is highly unlikely that I will ever see this place for myself, but it is always fascinating to read about the ups and downs of castles and families on your blog. That reminds me – I still want to order your book.

  8. artandarchitecturemainly

    Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, was granted the manor of Penrith by King Richard in 1396. Right and proper!

    But think about how risky it was, supporting Richard’s overthrow by Henry Bolingbroke. Yes Bolingbroke became Henry IV in 1399, but imagine if the Nevilles had got it wrong. Far from being one of the wealthiest and most powerful landowning families in medieval England, they would have ended up executed.

    How fickle history was, even among the wealthy land owners.

  9. joannerambling

    I had a blonde moment when I thought there is no castle in Penrith as I was thinking of Penrith in Sydney, silly me……………..that said I of course liked the post

  10. shazza

    It’s definitely a pile of red sandstone ruins but quite attractive in its own way. I like The Giants Grave and Celtic cross in the church in town.

    1. SueW

      What an interesting post, Mike. I’ve never been to the castle, but know exactly what you mean about thinking about those who warmed themselves by the fires. Almost like Feeling the past.

  11. Lisa G.

    The “inside” photos are interesting; the ones of the outside of it are so – well – ruined looking. My thought was that it’s a good thing it’s in your country. If it was here it would have been knocked down by now.
    This reminds me to read your book, Mike. I have a bad habit of buying books, finding a place for them and then forgetting I own them. That’s one of the side effects of working in a place full of books.

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