Stuart timeline

Trial, Charles I, WestminsterBelow is a simple timeline of events in Stuart Britain.

1603 Scottish King James VI, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, becomes James I of England and the first King of Great Britain.
1604 James makes peace with Spain.
1605 The Gunpowder Plot.
1607 Jamestown, Virginia – the first permanent British colony in North America.
1609 The Plantation of Ulster – English and Scottish Protestants are encouraged to move to Ireland taking land confiscated from Catholics.
1610 The Newfoundland Company sets out to form a colony in Newfoundland.
1611 King James Bible published.
1616 William Shakespeare dies.
1618 Sir Walter Raleigh executed.
1620 The Pilgrim Fathers sail to the New World.
1621 Oxford Botanic Garden founded – Britain’s oldest botanic garden.
1624-30  War with Spain.
1625 Barbados becomes a British colony.
1626-29 War with France.
1628 George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, Charles I’s unpopular chief minister, is assassinated in Portsmouth. William Harvey describes the circulation of blood in the human body.
1629 Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules without it for 11 years.
1630s Considerable emigration to Massachusetts Bay, particularly of fundamental Puritan Protestants.
1637 Charles I tries to force a new prayer book in Scotland, which is seen as an attempt to reintroduce Catholicism. In Oxford, the first coffee house in Britain opens.
1638 Scots draw up a ‘National Covenant’ to resist ‘religious innovation.’
1640 Start of the Long Parliament.
1642 Charles I raises his standard at Nottingham.  Start of the English Civil War between Parliament and the King.
1643 Parliament allies with the Scots (or vice versa).
1644 Parliament wins the Battle of Marston Moor. The King loses control of the North of England.
1645 Parliament’s New Model Army wins the Battle of Naseby. Royalist army is effectively destroyed.
1646 Charles I surrenders to the Scots.
1647 The Scots sell Charles to Parliament.
1648 2nd Civil War. Cromwell beats a Royalist army at Preston.
1649 Trial and execution of Charles I. England and Wales become a republic.
1649-50 Oliver Cromwell crushes resistance in Ireland, including the controversial sackings of Drogheda and Wexford.
1650-52 Cromwell crushes resistance in Scotland.
1651 Charles II crowned King in Scotland – and defeated at the Battle of Worcester.
1652-52 1st Dutch War.
1652 Society of Friends (Quakers) founded.
1653 Cromwell becomes Lord Protector.
1655 Jews allowed to return to England. Britain takes Jamaica from Spain.
1658 Cromwell dies. The first tea is sold in Britain.
1660 Restoration of the Monarchy. The Royal Society is founded. And it’s the year that Samuel Pepys started a diary.
1664 The English capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York.
1665-67 2nd Dutch War. In 1667, the Dutch attacked the Naval Dockyard at Chatham.
1665 The Great Plague. Robert Hooke discovers the cell.
1666 Great Fire of London.
1667 John Milton publishes Paradise Lost.
1669 Christopher Wren is given the job of designing a new St Paul’s Cathedral.
1672-74 3rd Dutch War.
1673 The Test Act excludes Catholics from public office.
1678 Titus Oats and the Popish Plot.  John Bunyan publishes Pilgrim’s Progress.
1679 The Act of Habeas Corpus guards against unlawful imprisonment.
1683 The Ashmolean Museum opens – Britain’s oldest museum.
1685 The Monmouth Rebellion.
1687 Isaac Newton publishes his theory of universal gravitation and three laws of motion.
1688 The ‘Glorious Revolution’ – William of Orange is ‘invited’ to invade, lands a Dutch Army at Brixham and James II flees the country.
1689 Bill of Rights.
1690 Battle of the Boyne.  Ousted King James and his Catholics are beaten by opportunist William of Orange and his Protestants.
1692 The massacre at Glen Coe.
1694 Foundation of the Bank of England.
1695 Foundation of the Bank of Scotland.
1698 English Parliament opens the slave trade to all. The Scottish Darien Company attempts to establish the colony of Caledonia in Panama.
1701-14 War of the Spanish Succession.
1701 Act of Settlement – determines that the next king/queen will be a Protestant.
1704 Battle of Blenheim. Allied armies under the Duke of Marlborough decisively beat a combined French/Bavarian army.
1707 Union of England and Scotland.
1709 Abraham Darby launches a new process to make cheaper iron products using coke.
1712 Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine invented.
1713 Britain gains Gibraltar.
1714 Death of Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch. She is succeeded by George, Elector of Hanover, who became George I.

Mayflower, Pilgrim Fathers, Plymouth, New World