Medieval timeline

Middleham Castle, North Yorkshire, Neville, Richard IIIHere is a simple timeline of events during (late) Medieval Britain, from the Norman invasion in 1066 to the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.

1066
The Norman Conquest. William the Conqueror is crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day.
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1069
The harrying of the North - William I viciously puts down rebellion in the north of England.
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1072
The Treaty of Abernethy King Malcolm III of Scotland acknowledges King William I of England as his feudal overlord.
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1086
The Domesday Survey of England – a unique record of who owned what.
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1091
Malcolm III of Scotland invades England. He is beaten back by William II (Rufus) and in the process loses land which is now part of the English county of Cumbria.
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1096
Probable date for the foundation of Oxford University.
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1114
Henry I of England invades Wales.
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1139-53
The Anarchy - civil war in England between followers of Stephen and Matilda, both claimants to the crown of England.
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1154
Henry II becomes King of England.  His so-called Angevin Empire included England, Normandy, Maine, Brittany, Anjou, Touraine, Aquitaine, Gascony and Toulouse.
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1169
English conquest of Ireland begins.
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1170
The murder of Thomas a Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.
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1190
Richard I (the Lionheart) and the Third Crusade.
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1209
Foundation of Cambridge University.
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1215
The barons rebel against King John and force him to agree to Magna Carta.
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1216
The French invade England.
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1217
Battle of Lincoln - French Prince Louis and his English baron allies are defeated by the young King Henry III's army under William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke.
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1237
Treaty of York determines the Anglo-Scottish border.
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1263
Scots fight the Norwegians at the Battle of Largs. Though the outcome was indecisive, Norwegian power began to decline afterwards.
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1264
Battle of Lewes - Simon de Montfort captures King Henry III.
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1265
Simon de Montfort summons a parliament - and is subsequently killed at the Battle of Evesham.
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1267
Henry III of England acknowledges Llywelyn ap Gruffydd's lordship in Wales.
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1277-82
Edward I of England invades and annexes Wales.
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1290
Edward I expels Jews from England.
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1292
Edward I forces the Scots to accept his lordship and selects John Balliol as king of the Scots.
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1295
Edward I summons the Model Parliament. As well as barons and bishops, it included representatives from counties, boroughs and cities.
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1297
Scotland’s William Wallace defeats an English army at Stirling Bridge.
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1298
William Wallace is defeated by the English at Falkirk.
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1301
Edward I declares the first English Prince of Wales – his son, the future Edward II.
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1305
William Wallace is executed.
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1306
Robert the Bruce is crowned King of Scotland.
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1312
The suppression of the Knights Templar.
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1314
Scots under Robert the Bruce defeat the English at the Battle of Bannockburn.
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1320
The Declaration of Arbroath - Scottish declaration of independence.
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1327
The murder of Edward II in Berkeley Castle.
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1337-1453
Hundred Years War between England and France.
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1333
The Scots lose Berwick on Tweed to the English.
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1346
English under Edward III defeat French at the Battle of Crecy.
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1348
The Black Death comes to Britain.
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1356
English forces under Edward, the Black Prince, defeat the French at the Battle of Poitiers.
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1371
Robert II becomes the first Stuart king of Scotland.
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1381
The Peasants' Revolt.
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1387
Chaucer begins the Canterbury Tales.
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1399
Richard II is deposed by Henry IV and subsequently starved to death.
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1413
Foundation of St Andrews University.
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1415
English under Henry V defeat French at the Battle of Agincourt.
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1420
Treaty of Troyes - agreement that Henry V of England and his heirs will inherit the throne of France on the death of the then King of France, Charles VI.  Henry marries Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois.
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1422
Henry V dies.  His 9-month old son becomes Henry VI and, on the death of his French grandfather, Charles VI, King of France too.
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1440
Eton College founded by Henry VI.
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1450
Jack Cade's rebellion.
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1451
University of Glasgow founded.
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1453
French defeat the English at the Battle of Castillon.  This marks the end of the Hundred Years War. England has lost all of its extensive territories in France; only the town of Calais remains in English hands.
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1454
In the wider context – in Mainz, Gutenberg publishes the Bible, the first book in Europe printed using moveable type.
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1455-85
The Wars of the Roses (the Cousins’ War) between the Houses of Lancaster and York.
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1455
First Battle of St Albans.
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1461
Battle of Towton - "the bloodiest battle in English history".
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1471
Battle of Tewkesbury results in victory for the Yorkists under Edward IV. Henry VI is subsequently murdered in the Tower of London.
Scotland formally annexes the Shetland and Orkney islands.
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1476
Caxton publishes the first book printed in England.
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1483
Sudden death of Edward IV.  His sons, Edward, heir to the throne, and younger brother Richard, disappear.  Edward IV’s brother, Richard, makes himself King Richard III.
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1485
Battle of Bosworth.  Henry Tudor defeats Richard III and starts a new dynasty as Henry VII.

 

King John, Magna Carta, seal