Medieval timeline

Middleham Castle, North Yorkshire, Neville, Richard IIIHere is a simple timeline of events during (late) Medieval Britain, from the Norman invasion in 1066 to the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.

1066 The Norman Conquest
1069 The ‘harrying of the North’ – William I visciously puts down rebellion in the north of England.
1072 The Treaty of Abernethy King Malcolm III of Scotland acknowledges King William I of England as his feudal overlord.
1086 The Domesday Survey of England.
1091 Malcolm III of Scotland invades England.
1096 Probable date for the foundation of Oxford University.
1114 Henry I of England invades Wales.
1139-53 The Anarchy’ – civil war in England between followers of Stephen and Matilda.
1169 English conquest of Ireland begins.
1170 Murder of Thomas a Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.
1190 Richard I (‘the Lionheart’) and the Third Crusade.
1209 Foundation of Cambridge University.
1215 The barons rebel against King John – Magna Carta.
1216 The French invade England.
1217 Battle of Lincoln – French Prince Louis and his English baron allies are defeated by the young King Henry III’s army under William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke.
1237 Treaty of York determines the Anglo-Scottish border.
1263 Scots defeat Norwegians at the Battle of Largs.
1264 Battle of Lewes – Simon de Montfort captures King Henry III.
1265 Simon de Montfort summons a parliament – and is subsequently killed at the Battle of Evesham.
1267 Henry III of England acknowledges Llywelyn ap Gruffydd’s lordship in Wales.
1277-82 Edward I of England invades and annexes Wales.
1290 Edward I expels Jews from England.  Queen Eleanor of Castile dies.
1292 Edward I forces the Scots to accept his lordship.
1295 Edward I summons ‘the Model Parliament’.
1297 William Wallace defeats an English army at Stirling Bridge.
1298 William Wallace is defeated by the English at Falkirk.
1301 The first English Prince of Wales.
1305 William Wallace is executed.
1306 Robert the Bruce is crowned King of Scotland.
1312 Suppression of the Knights Templar.
1314 Scots defeat the English at the Battle of Bannockburn.
1320 Declaration of Arbroath – Scottish declaration of independence.
1327 Murder of Edward II.
1337-1453 Hundred Years War between England and France.
1333 Scots lose Berwick on Tweed to the English.
1346 English defeat French at the Battle of Crecy.
1348 The Black Death comes to Britain.
1356 English defeat French at the Battle of Poitiers.
1371 Robert II becomes the first Stuart king of Scotland.
1381 The Peasants’ Revolt.
1387 Chaucer begins the Canterbury Tales.
1399 Richard II deposed by Henry IV.
1413 Foundation of St Andrews University.
1415 English under Henry V defeat French at the Battle of Agincourt.
1420 Treaty of Troyes – agreement that Henry V of England and his heirs will inherit the throne of France on the death of the then King of France, Charles VI. Henry marries Charles’ daughter, Catherine of Valois.
1422 Henry V dies. His 9-month old son becomes Henry VI and, on the death of his French grandfather, Charles VI, King of France too.
1440 Eton College founded by Henry VI.
1450 Jack Cade’s rebellion.
1451 University of Glasgow founded.
1453 French defeat the English at the Battle of Castillon. England has lost all of its extensive territories in France; only the town of Calais remains English.
1455-85 The Wars of the Roses between the Houses of Lancaster (red rose) and York (white rose).
1455 First Battle of St Albans.
1461 Battle of Towton – “the bloodiest battle in English history”.
1471 Battle of Tewkesbury.
1471 Scotland formally annexed the Shetland and Orkney islands
1476 Caxton publishes the first book printed in England.
1483 Death of Edward IV. His brother, Richard, makes himself King Richard III.
1485 Battle of Bosworth. Henry Tudor defeats Richard III and starts a new dynasty as Henry VII.

King John, Magna Carta, seal