Georgian timeline

Uppark, SussexHere is a simple timeline of events during Georgian (or Hanoverian) Britain, from 1714 until Victoria came to the throne in 1837.

1714 German-speaking George, Elector of Hanover, becomes George I, King of Great Britain and Ireland.
1715 First Jacobite Rising.
1718 Transportation Act – Britain starts shipping convicts to its American colonies.
1720 South Sea Bubble – major financial crisis, many lose fortunes.
1721 Sir Robert Walpole becomes Britain’s first ‘Prime Minister’ and receives 10 Downing Street to live in.
1723 Handel is appointed Composer to the Chapel Royal.
1738 David Hume publishes his Treatise on Human Nature.
1739 John Wesley’s first sermon preached ‘in the field’ – the birth of Methodism. The War of Jenkins’ Ear – Anglo-Spanish naval war.  Highwayman Dick Turpin is hanged in York.
1743 Battle of Dettingen (Germany) – George II is the last British monarch to lead troops into battle.
1744 First rules of golf are drawn up in Edinburgh.
1745 2nd Jacobite Rising – the ’45 Rebellion – Bonnie Prince Charlie lands in Scotland and is declared ‘Charles III’ His rebel army gets as far as Derby, sending the government into panic..
1746 Battle of Culloden – Bonnie Prince Charlie’s rebellion is defeated. The Government acts harshly to prevent further Stuart/Catholic uprisings.
1750 Start of the Highland Clearances.  The laws of modern cricket are developed at Hambledon Cricket Club, in Hampshire.
1751 Gin Act – attempts to regulate (and reduce) the sale of spirits.
1752 Adoption of Gregorian Calendar; some protest at their ‘loss of 11 days.’
1753 British Museum established.
1755 Samuel Johnson publishes A Dictionary of the English Language.  The Hellfire Club is founded.
1756-63 Seven Years War – global conflict with Britain, Prussia and other German states allied against France, Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, Sweden…
1756 The Black Hole of Calcutta.
1757 Battle of Plassey – the British East India Co captures Bengal.
1759 Annus Mirabilis – the Year of Victories – major successes, primarily against the French, including a naval victory in Quiberon Bay preventing a French invasion and the capture of Quebec. Robbie Burns is also born this year.
1761 Opening of the Bridgewater Canal.
1764 James Watt develops his steam engine.
1768 Royal Academy is founded. James Cook sets off on the first of three voyages of scientific discovery and explanation, on this occasion to Pacific Islands, New Zealand and Australia.  In Edinburgh, Volume 1 of the Encyclopaedia Britannica is published.
1769 Richard Arkwright patents his spinning frame. Wedgwood’s Etruria factory opens.
1772 Milestone court case effectively makes slavery illegal in England and Wales.
1773 The Boston Tea Party.
1774 Discovery of oxygen.
1776 Declaration of American Independence. Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations is published.
1778 John Paul Jones ‘invades’ England.
1780 The Gordon Riots – an anti-Catholic protest ends up in general violence and looting in London.
1781 American Colonial army defeats Government army at Yorktown.
1783 American colonies become independent. British loyalists and freed slaves are evacuated from America to Canada. William Pitt the Younger becomes Britain’s youngest Prime Minister (so far) at the age of 23.
1784 East India Act increases Government control in India.
1786 David Dale establishes New Lanark Mills with Richard Arkwright.
1787 Construction of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, a seaside retreat for the Prince of Wales, commences. The first convicts are transported to Australia, sailing from Portsmouth to Botany Bay.  The world’s first iron boat is launched, on the River Severn.
1789 The French Revolution. Mutiny on the Bounty.
1791 Thomas Paine’s Rights of Man is published. Official birth date of the Ordnance Survey, Britain’s mapping system.
1792 Britain establishes Sierra Leone as a home for former slaves.
1793-1815 Napoleonic Wars
1795 Mungo Park explores the Gambia and Niger rivers.
1796 Joseph Turner exhibits his first painting at the Royal Academy, Fishermen at Sea.
1798 Introduction of income tax. Jenner publishes his findings on smallpox.
1799 Robert Owen moves to New Lanark Mills. The Combination Act prohibits Trades Unions.
1801 Act of Union between Britain and Ireland and the first Parliament of the United Kingdom. Britain’s first census.
1805 Battle of Trafalgar – Nelson beats a combined French and Spanish fleet and establishes Great Britain as the premier naval power for the next 100 years.
1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade.
1811 Luddite Riots – textile machinery is sabotaged in Lancashire, Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire. Jane Austen publishes Sense and Sensibility.
1812-14 War between the USA and Great Britain – included the burning of Washington in 1814.
1814 Walter Scott publishes his first novel, Waverley.
1815 Introduction of the Corn Laws places tariffs on imported grain. Battle of Waterloo – British and Prussian armies finally defeat Napoleon.  Humphrey Davy invents the safety lamp.
1819 Peterloo Massacre – troops kill 11 and injure hundreds during a peaceful protest in Manchester.  Stamford Raffles establishes a trading post on the Malay Peninsula, which became Singapore.
1821-23 Famine in Ireland.
1821 John Constable shows The Hay Wain at the Royal Academy.
1823 The game of rugby is born when William Web Ellis picks up the ball during a football match and runs with it.
1825 The world’s first steam railway service opens between Stockton and Darlington.
1828 Burke and Hare are arrested for multiple murders in Edinburgh, their victims being intended for medical dissection. It was easier than digging up freshly buried corpses.
1829 Catholic emancipation – Catholics no longer banned from holding public office or attending university. Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police.
1831 Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction.
1832 Great Reform Act – abolished some ‘rotten’ boroughs – parliamentary constituencies where few people lived – created new constituencies for the growing urban areas and slightly extended the franchise. Jeremy Bentham, responsible for the principle of ‘the greatest happiness of the greatest number’, dies.
1833 Factory Act restricts the working hours of women and children. Slavery is abolished in British colonies.
1834 The Tolpuddle Martyrs are sentenced to transportation for combining to campaign for better working conditions.  Slavery Abolition Act abolishes slavery in most of Britain’s colonies.  The Poor Law Amendment Act establishes workhouses as the main means of providing welfare.
1835 Fox Talbot’s first photographic negative.
1836 Birth of the Chartist Movement, with the aim of political reform and extending the franchise.
1837 Victoria becomes Queen at the age of 18.